Safe Mercury Amalgam Removal

Safe Mercury Amalgam Removal Technique protects patients and dental staff from mercury releases during amalgam filling removal. For many decades, dentists have used mercury amalgam as a material to fill cavities. However, health-minded patients may be concerned about the potentially toxic effects of these materials in their mouths.

At The Center for Systemic Dentistry, patients in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey communities can rely on Dr. Memoli for safe mercury removal. Patients seeking a mercury safe dentist area will find compassionate, gentle, holistic dental care at The Center for Systemic Dentistry. If you are concerned about the potentially toxic effects of mercury and are interested in learning more about our safe amalgam removal process, call or text us today.


  1. What are amalgam fillings?
  2. What is mercury toxicity?
  3. Do amalgam fillings pose a health risk?
  4. Should amalgam fillings be removed?
  5. What are the dental and systemic risks both during and after amalgam removal?
  6. Do the current standards for amalgam removal protect patients against additional risks?
  7. Is there a more comprehensive protocol which can protect patients from these risks, while maintaining dental and systemic health? 


  1. What are the symptoms associated with mercury toxicity?
  2. Which symptoms are likely to improve with treatment?


  1. General concepts of health and toxicity
  • Overview
  • Discussion
  1. The Mercury Toxicity Algorithm
  • Patient Responses to Heavy Metal Toxicity
  • Level I: Exposure
  • Level II: Gastro-intestinal (Gut) Disturbances
  • Level III: Immune System
  • Level IV: Detoxification System
  • Level V: Elimination
  1. Abstracts of Selected Studies
  • Mercury and its effect on the body
  1. Proof of Mercury Release from Fillings and Absorption in the Body
  2. Mercury Concentration in Primates
  • Which parts of the body accumulate mercury? What symptoms or diseases may result?
  1. The Brain and Nervous System
  2. Immune Suppression
  3. Autoimmune Disease
    1. Study 1
    2. Study 2
    3. Study 3
  4. Kidneys
  5. Antibiotic Resistance


1. My Personal Mercury Health Crisis

  1. My diagnosis of Mercury toxicity
  2. Selecting the “best” Dentist and the “latest” Amalgam Removal Procedure
  3. My Health “Crash” after Amalgam Removal
  4. What I Learned from my Research after the Crisis
  5. Developing a New Protocol for Amalgam Removal

2. Learning about Systemic Health: Treating the Causes

  1. Baptism by Fire: My Wife’ Cancer Diagnosis
  2. Lessons in Systemic Health from Alternative Cancer Clinics in Germany

3. The Oral-Systemic Protocol for Amalgam Removal: Maximum Health Protection

  1. The Oral -Systemic Protocol
  2. Becoming a New Patient
  3. The Oral -Systemic Amalgam Removal Process
    1. Introduction
    2. The Comprehensive Exam
    3. The Treatment Plan
    4. The Treatment Phases
    5. The Amalgam Removal Patient Protection Process
    6. Follow-up Procedures
    7. Post-Systemic Therapy



1. What are amalgam fillings?

Dental amalgam is a mixture of metals, consisting primarily of mercury. Other metals, such as silver, tin, and copper, may also be present. Dental amalgam is a material used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. Since they have a silver appearance, amalgam fillings are often called “silver” fillings.

2. What is mercury toxicity?

Mercury toxicity is another name for mercury poisoning. It’s an illness caused by high levels of mercury in the body.

3. Do amalgam fillings pose a health risk?

There are two opinions:

No health risk: Many dentists feel amalgam fillings are safe. They argue that amalgam fillings have been in use for over 150 years. They also point out that they and their families have these fillings and only a small percentage of the population is sensitive to them. There is, however, no way to identify those who may be sensitive. The American Dental Association (ADA) states that amalgam fillings are safe, based on current research data. The ADA, however, supports ongoing research in the safety of all existing dental materials. For more information, go to

Substantial health risk: Many researchers, particularly toxicologists (scientists who determine what is toxic or safe), feel there are great risks associated with amalgam fillings and they question whether they should be used at all. One researcher (Cutter, 1999) argued that “millions of people are being poisoned by mercury compounds the medical profession is exposing them to.”


  • Cutler, AH. Amalgam Illness:  Diagnosis and Treatment. Andrew Hall Cutler, 1996.
  • Weiner JA & Nylander M. “Aspects on Health risks of mercury from Dental Amalgams.” In Chang LW, ed., Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton, CRC, 1996; 469-486.

4. Should amalgam fillings be removed?

Some dentists argue that amalgam fillings should not be removed for several reasons.

  • “All the mercury has already leaked out…”
  • “Additional tooth structure will be lost…”
  • “The patient will be exposed to toxic levels of mercury vapor being released as the fillings are drilled out…”

If you’re concerned about amalgam fillings causing health problems, however, there’s good news. Amalgam fillings can be safely replaced, but only by dentists trained in mercury removal. These would include systemic, biological and holistic dentists. These dentists can not only protect patients (and themselves) but can easily preserve tooth structure.

5. What are the dental and systemic risks both during and after amalgam removal?

Dental Risks:

Cracked or fractured teeth – from weak teeth

Sensitivity – from inflamed dental nerves

Nerve loss – from nerve degeneration

Tooth loss – from nerve devitalization (death of the tooth?)

Systemic Risks (Symptoms or Diseases)

Neurological Disorders:


Panic attacks

Depression (new or deep)




Amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Sleep disorder


Borderline personality

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Myasthenia gravis

Ankylosing spondylitis



Immunological disorders:

Autoimmune disease (such as Hashimoto’s, asthma, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis)

Th2 Dominance disorders

IgG sensitivity

IgE mediated allergies

Class III mercury-induced hypersensitivity

Chronic infection syndromes (such as Lyme, co-infections, and Epstein-Barr)

Detoxification Disorders:

Multiple chemical sensitivities

Environmental illness

Chronic fatigue

Skin rashes


Kidney dysfunction (loss of glomerular filtration with increased bun and serum creatinine)

Liver dysfunction  (glutathione, selenium and sulphur depletion, resulting in increased susceptibility to heavy metal toxicity, radiation toxicity, chemical intolerances and mold and fungal mycotoxins).

Digestive Disorders:

Acute and chronic gastritis



Intestinal dysbiosis

Yeast/candida overgrowth

Irritable bowel disorder (IBD)

Crohn’s disease.

Endocrine Disorders:

Thyroid disorders

Adrenal insufficiency

Pancreatic stress (blood sugar disorders)

Kidney disorders (regulation of blood pressure)

6. Do the current standards for amalgam removal protect patients against additional risks?

No instruction or training is taught in dental school for safe amalgam removal.

Basic mercury training is offered by various post-graduate institutes to instruct dentists in proper removal of amalgam fillings and patient protection from vapor. Institutes include:

  • Institute for Nutritional Dentistry
  • Holistic Dental Association
  • International Academy of Biological Dentistry and Medicine (IABDM)
  • International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the release of mercury into the environment. In addition, the NJ EPA requires dentists to use amalgam separators which remove amalgam particles from dental office waste water. It also advises the public to select non-mercury containing fillings. For more information go to

The Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA) regulates the protection of dental staff but not patients. For more information, go to

7. Is there a more comprehensive protocol which can protect patients from these risks, while maintaining dental and systemic health?

The Comprehensive Examination

  • History including dental and systemic (medical).
  • Four key dental examinations: teeth, dental nerve, gums (periodontal) and the bite.
  • Identification of key dental and systemic risk factors.
  • Biocompatibility testing and other tests.
  • Consultation with physicians and other practitioners.

The Treatment Plan

  • Restoration selection.
  • Material selection.
  • Pre-Amalgam removal phase.
  • Amalgam removal phase.

Dental Pre-preparation

  • Discussing dental risks, including potential sensitivity, tooth loss and nerve loss.

Systemic Pre-preparation

  • Addressing systemic risks before amalgam removal.
  • Consultations on systemic function: immune, detoxification and elimination systems and genetic testing

Day of Treatment

  • Pre-treatment preparation
  • Supplements

Amalgam Removal Process

  • Basic patient protection for mercury vapor
  • Additional systemic precautions
  • Additional dental precautions
  • Four-day follow-up process

Post-systemic Process

  • Post-treatment options
  • Chronic antibiotic resistant infections may now respond to therapy
  • Intestinal dysbiosis and allergies may also respond to therapy


1. What Are the Symptoms Associated with Mercury Toxicity?

REPORT: Lichtenberg, H. Elimination of symptoms by removal of amalgam from mercury poisoned patients, as compared with a control group of average patients. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 8:145-148, 1993.

ABSTRACT:  How do we determine the symptoms due to mercury toxicity? This study removed amalgam from a group of patients poisoned by mercury and compared them to a control group of average patients. The results showed a reversal of symptoms after amalgam removal, strongly suggesting that mercury toxicity was a likely cause.

RESULTS:  The following results indicate the percentage of patients’ symptoms which either improved or were eliminated. The first chart indicates a list of symptoms.  The second chart indicates symptoms when categorized systemically.

Chart 1:  Percentage of Symptoms Improved or Eliminated

Allergy (88%)
Skin Disturbances (75%)
Bleeding Gums (93%)
Tender Teeth  (100%)
Bad Breath (91%)
Metallic Taste (100%)
Blister/Sores in Oral Cavity (93%)
Watery Eyes (88%)
Sore or Irritated Throat (80%)
Tension in Face/Jaw Muscles (90%)
Diverticulosis (80%)
Stomach Cramps (90%)
Bloating (79%)
Loss of Appetite (100%)
Diarrhea and Constipation (92%)
Intestinal Cramps and Pains (76%)
Headache (87%)
Fatigue (80%)
Lack of Concentration (87%)
Fear (91%)
Irritability (93%)
Depression (96%)
Insomnia (87%)
Dizziness (86%)
Muscles Tire Easily (77%)
Muscle Tremor (92%)
Schiatic Pains (81%)
Chest Pains (95%)
Leg Cramps (77%)
Joint Pains (85%)
Cold Hands and Feet (84%)
Tachycardia (75%)

Chart 2: Percentage of Symptoms Improve or Eliminated (categorized systemically)

Neurological Symptoms

Depression (96%)
Lack of Concentration (87%)

Fear (91%)
Irritability (93%)

Brain/Central Nervous System
Dizziness (86%)
Headache (87%)

Peripheral Nervous System
Cold Hands and Feet (84%)

Gastro-Intestinal Symptoms
G-I Cramps and Pain (90%)
Diarrhea and/or Constipation(92%)
Diverticulosis (80%)
Loss of Appetite (100%)

Immune System Symptoms
Allergies (88%)
Sore Throat (80%)

Neuromuscular Symptoms

Muscles Tire Easily (77%)
Muscle Tremor (92%)

Muscle Nerves
Leg Cramps (77%)
Sciatica Pain (81%)

Oral Cavity Symptoms
Bad Breath (91%)
Blisters and Sores (93%)
Metallic Taste (100%)

Teeth and Gums
Tender Teeth (100%)
Bleeding Gums (93%)

Cardio-Vascular Symptoms
Tachycardia (75%)
Chest Pains (95%)

Mitochondria (Cells)
Fatigue (80%)

2. Which Symptoms of Mercury Toxicity Are Likely to Improve with Treatment?

REPORT: Ziff S. & Ziff M. “A Consolidated Symptom Analysis of 1,569 Patients.” Bio-Probe (IAOMT) March 1993.

ABSTRACT: This was a Health Symptoms Analysis of 1,569 patients in six different studies. The data was derived from 762 Patient Adverse Reaction Reports submitted to the FDA by patients and from 807 patient’s reports from Sweden, Denmark, Canada and the U.S. The studies evaluated the health effects of replacing dental fillings that contained mercury.

RESULTS:  The result of the analysis shows the percentage of patients who reported a cure or improvement in symptoms as compared to before treatment.   The first chart indicates a list of symptoms.  The second chart indicates symptoms when categorized systemically.

Chart 1: Percentage of Symptoms Cured or Improved

Allergy (89%)
Anxiety (93%)
Bad Temper (89%)
Blood Pressure Problems (54%)
Chest Pains (87%)
Depression (91%)
Dizziness (88%)
Fatigue (86%)
Gastrointestinal Problems (83%)
Gum Problems (94%)
Headaches (87%)
Migraine Headaches (87%)
Insomnia (78%)
Irregular Heartbeat (87%)
Irritability (90%)
Lack of Concentration (80%)
Lack of Energy (97%)
Memory Loss (73%)
Metallic Taste (95%)
Multiple Sclerosis (76%)
Muscle Tremor (83%)
Nervousness (83%)
Numbness Anywhere (82%)
Skin Disturbances (81%)
Sore Throat (86%)
Tachycardia (70%)
Thyroid Problems (79%)
Oral Cavity Ulcers and Sores (86%)
Urinary Tract Problems (86%)
Vision Problems (63%)

Chart 2: Percentage of Symptoms Cured or Improved (categorized systematically)

Neurological Symptoms

Anxiety (93%)
Depression (91%)
Lack of Concentration (80%)
Memory Loss (73%)

Irritability (90%)
Uncontrollable temper (89%)
Nervousness (83%)

Dizziness (88%)
Migraine headaches (87%)
Insomnia (78%)

Cranial nerves
Metallic/altered taste (95%)
Visual problems (63%)

Peripheral nervous system
Muscle tremor (83%)
Numbness (82%)
Skin disturbances (81%)

Oral Cavity Symptoms
Gum/periodontal (94%)
Ulcers and sores (86%)

Immune System Symptoms

Food/chemical allergies (89%)
Bloating (88%)
GI problems (83%)

Multiple Sclerosis (86%)

Sore throat (86%)

Detoxification Symptoms

Headaches (87%)

Urinary tract (76%)
Blood pressure (54%)

Target Organ Symptoms

Chest pains
Tachycardia (70%)

Thyroid (79%)

Lack of energy (97%)
Fatigue (86%)



  1. Chronic Exposure: a state of constant exposure to environmental toxins.
  2. Biological Individuality and its effect on immune resistance and susceptibility
  3. The body’s “fail-safe” system to maintain health
  4. The Immune System:
    1. Normal function: self vs. non-self.
    2. Inflammation: the normal response to toxins.
    3. Overstimulation: chronic inflammation and allergies.
    4. Abnormal response leading to immune disease: autoimmunity and
  5. The Detoxification System:
    1. Normal function: processing of toxins and excess hormones.
    2. Phase I: activation of toxins (P450 enzymes).
    3. Phase II: Processing excretion through the nutritionally-dependent glutathione, methylation, and sulfation pathways.
  6. The Elimination System:
    1. Kidney elimination process.
    2. Kidney disturbances (autoimmune problems and nephrotoxicity) limiting kidney elimination.
    3. Colon elimination by way of the bile.
    4. Disturbance such as enterohepatic circulation (reabsorption) preventing colon elimination.
    5. Skin elimination as a result of poor excretion.
  7. Difficulties in establishing a diagnosis of toxicity:
    1. Identifying the culprit (the xenobiotics).
    2. Difficulty in assessing the functions of the immune, detoxification and elimination systems.
    3. Genetic variations among patients
    4. False negatives: the limitations of biomarkers
    5. Misdiagnosis and/or referral for psychiatric therapy.


We are constantly being exposed to various toxins from our environment, such as heavy metals, chemicals, radiation, and acids. When these toxins enter our body, they may exert adverse effects which can result in symptoms or disease. As a result of our unique identity, called “biological individuality,” each of us reacts differently to a toxic exposure. Those who remain unaffected are called resistant; those who are affected are termed susceptible. In order to understand resistance and susceptibility, we need to be familiar with the system designed to protect us and prevent disease. This system is composed of three sequential parts:

  1. Identification: The Immune System carries out this process.
  2. Neutralization: The Detoxification System performs this task.
  3. Elimination: The colon and kidneys work to remove toxins.

Since the health of the individual is crucial to his or her survival, the body uses these three systems. It also provides a back-up or “fail safe” plan in the event one part fails. The back-up not only assists the individual parts, but allows these parts to assist other systems. We refer to this as “compensation.”

The Immune System is the part of the body designed to recognize those aspects which are not part of the body, called “non-self” by immunologists. Under normal conditions, the immune system neutralizes toxins, micro-organisms, biotoxins (toxins made by micro-organisms) and other invaders. The Human Genome Project, which studied our DNA, discovered that all individuals are surprisingly similar, with the notable exception of the immune system. This system differs widely in all people, partly because of our biological individuality. It is this striking difference which partly accounts for resistance and susceptibility.

When the immune system encounters invaders such as toxins, it can act in a variety of ways.

  • Under ideal conditions, it identifies the toxins or micro-organisms which are then neutralized and excreted.
  • If the toxic exposure is severe, the entire system may shut down and go into “flight” or survival mode.
  • A less drastic response is chronic inflammation, which is the body’s attempt to contain or eliminate toxins without success. Chronic inflammation may progress into chronic degenerative diseases which include cardiovascular, pulmonary, periodontal and dental decay diseases, as well as cancer and other diseases.
  • The immune system may also overreact, resulting in tissue or organ damage. These can be the result of allergies (Caused by undigested food particles), autoimmune disease (Caused primarily by mercury, chemicals and therapeutic agents), and hypersensitivity (Caused mainly by mercury, metals, genetically modified foods and organisms, latex and other therapeutic agents).
  • Finally, a shutdown of the immune system may occur as a result of toxic insult or therapeutic intervention. Once the immune system is compromised in any way, it is more difficult for the body to identify and eliminate toxins.

The Detoxification System, commonly thought to comprise only the liver, actually exists in some capacity in every cell. Points of entry, such as the gut and lungs, as well as any organs susceptible to damage from toxins (kidney, bladder, prostate, breast), also carry out detoxification. The gut, which controls absorption through a semi-permeable barrier, can selectively absorb nutrients and allow most toxins to exit through the colon. Certain toxins called xenobiotics, however, can mimic the shape of natural molecules and pass through the barrier. In fact, many patients with small intestine disorders (such as leaky gut disorder, celiac disease, and food sensitivity or allergies) may allow toxins to pass through the damaged barrier into the blood stream where they are delivered to the liver.

The liver has several systems and backup systems to insure toxins do not harm the body. It will even tag and detoxify toxins which won’t harm the body but simply don’t belong. During Phase I of detoxification, the P450 enzyme “family” activates or prepares toxins for the next stage. During Phase II, several important enzyme systems (glucuronidation, glutathione, methylation, sulfonation, N-Acetylation, TST) chemically and electro-statically attach to toxins. Toxins that are difficult to neutralize generally undergo a series of reactions until the body can safely contain them.

Because the liver processes these toxins, it may suffer damage to its own cells and tissues. In order to protect itself and the body, the organ has the unique ability to regenerate itself. This capacity for regeneration gives rise to the phenomenon called compensation. Compensation is the potential for the liver to assist other organs, such as the pancreas or spleen, to prevent an acute crisis in the body. The capacity for compensation, however, can be a double-edge sword. Although it helps other organs to function, it can provide a false impression regarding the balance and health of the body. As a result, chronic degenerative diseases can progress without detection by laboratory biomarkers. Fortunately, techniques such as acupuncture, developed by the Chinese, can detect and correct these early imbalances. Acupuncture, augmented with cutting edge research, holds the promise of mapping out the early stages of disease (including dental disease). In this manner, a true early diagnostic and preventative model can be developed.

The final phase, the Elimination System, involves the coordination of various processes and systems. Everything entering the body, whether nutritive or toxic, is processed first in the liver. Nutrients enter the blood stream and lymph (fat-soluble molecules), allowing cells to absorb nutrients and release wastes. The blood and lymphatic systems route these wastes to the liver where they are absorbed and processed for elimination. The kidneys eliminate simple toxins by way of urine; the bile processes complicated and dangerous toxins, excreting them through the colon.

When patients suffer from intestinal dysbiosis disease, however, the process may be interrupted by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. As a result, after the processed toxins enter the intestine, specific enzymes of these bacteria reverse the detoxification process. These toxins are then reabsorbed and again detoxified, only to be broken down and reabsorbed. This recycling of toxins is called enterohepatic circulation and may present an insurmountable obstacle for the body to rid itself of dangerous toxins.

The various types of toxins determine how smoothly the process of elimination occurs. The body’s own metabolic toxins include not only cellular wastes, but also old or excess molecules, such as vitamins and hormones. With some exceptions (hormones), these toxins are fairly efficient, particularly when nutrition is good. Microbial wastes, such as bacterial endotoxins and fungal mycotoxins, also must be processed. Since the system is designed to process them, elimination can proceed efficiently, again with good nutrition. Exceptions would include acute (painful and localized) and chronic (silent and hidden foci) infections which can overwhelm the system.

Xenobiotics (foreign toxins such as heavy metals, chemicals and other agents) can place a great deal of stress on the entire system. Because of the complexity and toxicity of xenobiotics, the system may break down during the identification and processing stages. If the body successfully manages these stages, the elimination process can be equally as challenging. Excessive or unprocessed toxins in the liver may cause inflammation, autoimmune disease, and cell injury or death. In turn, they would limit the liver’s ability to regenerate and compensate, rendering the body more susceptible to breakdown.

The kidneys, which also possess some regenerative and detoxification ability, would be subject to injury, too. Possible injuries include autoimmune glomerulonephritis (caused by mercury, heavy metals, pain killers and other agents) and nephrotoxicity (actual pathology of the structure and function due to the same agents listed above). Remarkably, when elimination is compromised and the body is burdened with excessive xenobiotics, the system will still attempt to compensate. For example, xenobiotics that cannot be processed can be stored in the lymph system and tissues of various organs. It’s impossible, however, to determine by conventional means whether these storage sites are safe. Another example is that the body can excrete some toxins by extraordinary means, such as through the skin (as lesions and excessive sweating) and through the gut (as vomiting or diarrhea).

In the face of such evidence, how can a diagnosis of toxicity be determined? First, the question of xenobiotics must be resolved. What specific toxins are there, where are they located, and to what extent are they affecting the body? Second is the overwhelming question of breakdown in the three part system: Identification, Detoxification, Elimination. No biomarkers or laboratory tests exist to reveal the origin or extent of the system’s problem. Added to these challenges are the individual variations as a result of nutrition and genetics. Is diagnosis even possible? Frustrated physicians offer patients medications to numb the pain or numb the mind. Where, then, can the toxicity patient get diagnostic or therapeutic assistance?

III: What Does the Research Say?

Part 2: The Mercury-Toxicity Algorithm (MTA)

Patient Responses to Heavy Metal Toxicity

RESISTANCE: Successful elimination of toxins. Resistance may change over time with age and in response to other stressors.

SUSCEPTIBILITY: The individual may manifest symptoms related to the body’s inability to eliminate the toxin. These cases can be classified as simple or complex:

  • SIMPLE: A mono-factorial, dose-dependent (linear) relationship. As toxin levels increase, the patient feels symptoms. As they decrease, the patient feels healthy.
  • COMPLEX: Multi-factorial. Diet, lifestyle, type and amount of toxins, as well as efficiency of the various systems designed to eliminate toxins all interact. If one or several of these factors breakdown, it is difficult to determine which part is not functioning. In addition, lab tests may show little or no toxins when, in fact, potentiation or exaggerated responses to small amounts of toxin may be occurring.

MTA Level I: Exposure



1. Amalgam (silver) Fillings

– Elemental Mercury is released as vapor which can be absorbed

– Vapor is released when fillings are agitated by brushing, chewing, tooth grinding and drinking hot fluids

– Mercury molecules may enter the saliva and be swallowed. These may enter the esophagus, stomach and intestine

– Increased vapor production occurs via galvanism (battery effect) when certain metals (such as gold, titanium, mercury and others) are placed together in the same mouth.

2. Amalgam Removal (Improper)

Elemental mercury released in large quantities can result in acute exposure to both the patient and dental staff. Specialized precautions must be taken to avoid this exposure.



80% of mercury is absorbed and enters the bloodstream


Elemental mercury, (found in the liquid and vapor) can cross the blood brain barrier. This conversion occurs in the bloodstream.

Inorganic mercury, the salt formed by oxidation in the blood, cannot cross the blood brain barrier


The mercury salts accumulate in and may impair these organs: brain, liver, kidney, stomach



Methyl mercury

– Fish swimming in contaminated waters are exposed to mercury in the food chain.

– Grains are exposed when treated with mercury containing antifungal agents.

Ethyl mercury

Synthetic form of mercury utilized in vaccines as an antimicrobial



-95% Absorption of Methylmercury


Methyl mercury

Conversion to salts in gut and tissue

Ethyl mercury

Conversion to salts in blood and tissues

Inorganic Mercury (Salts)


Accumulation occurs in the following organs: brain, liver, and placenta (causing fetal exposure).

MTA Level II: Gastro-lntestinal (Gut) Disturbances

ABSTRACT: Elemental mercury (discharged from fillings) and methyl mercury (from fish and seafood) are ingested and enter the gut. The body responds according to its health status; the result is either resistance or susceptibility to the toxic threat.



“First Pass” occurs when the stomach and intestines maintain cellular integrity of the enterocytes (gut cells) and act as an impermeable seal or barrier to ingested toxins. This allows them to pass safely out by way of the colon. Toxins which the colon is susceptible to may be allowed to enter the enterocyte. Inside, detoxification enzymes (CYP 3A4) render the toxin less harmful to the colon. The MORI and Multi-Drug Resistance “pumps” may propel the toxins back into the colon or allow passage into the portal vein to the liver for further detoxification.



The gut is lined with patches of immune cells (GALT). These cells may be stimulated to release inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6 and TNF) which cause gut inflammation.

  1. Liver cells may also be activated which may cause a wider (systemic) inflammatory response.
  1. Chronic Inflammation, a state of constant inflammation, may result if exposure to mercury is not halted.


Mercury disturbs the cells (enterocytes) lining the gut which regulate absorption. Under normal conditions, the cells allow nutrients and prevent organisms, toxins and undigested food particles (which cause allergies) to pass between the cells to enter the blood stream. Mercury may disturb the cell structure, resulting in loss of regulation. At this point, organisms, toxins and food particles enter the bloodstream where they will encounter the immune system.


The microorganisms which comprise the gut biofilm may change from a normal (eubiotic) to apathogenic (dysbiotic) form. The following changes may be seen:

  1. Bacterial (gram-negative) Over growth

These bacteria are necessary in small numbers but in excessive numbers produce a toxic substance called endotoxin. Endotoxin can increase the effects of toxins, such as mercury and lead, over a thousand fold.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance

Mercury may counter the ability for gut biofilm to resist treatment. This helps to create a state of chronic infections.

  1. Fungal and Opportunistic Infections

Candida overgrowth may occur as the organism itself absorbs mercury. (Note: An attempt to control candida can result in mercury exposure). Candida and other infections, such as viruses and parasites, may not come under control until exposure is controlled.

MTA Level Ill: The Immune System

RESISTANCE: THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IDENTIFIES AND ELIMINATES ALL TOXINS ENTERING THE BODY. This complex and seemingly impossible task is performed thousands of times a day without malfunction.

SUSCEPTIBILITY: IMMUNE SYSTEM BREAKS DOWN OR MALFUNCTIONS. An excellent immune system may present with one or several ‘Achille’s heels’ which may cause it to be temporarily overwhelmed (as in a cold or flu) or to malfunction (manifested as under- or overactivity).


TH IMBALANCE (aka Th2 Dominance) The Immune System has two regulatory components, the Th1 and Th2 systems. The Th1 system activates the Immune system to identify and eliminate components, such as organisms and toxins which do not belong. Mercury can cause an imbalance to occur resulting in Th2 Dominance. Once the system is in this mode, chronic infections will result.

Viral Infections:




Herpes type 1 (Oral)

Bacterial Infections

Lyme (Borrelia)






Fungal Infections




Many rely on blood tests to determine the presence of an infection. If the immune system is underactive, the test may give a false negative. Specific tests have been developed to determine infections by using other biomarkers, although many of these have not been recognized)



Toxins, such as heavy metals or xenobiotics, may get inside cells which are unable to remove them. In this case, the immune system may attack cells resulting in cell death. On a large scale, this may manifest as autoimmunity or hypersensitivity.

1. Autoimmunity

This may involve complicated reactions and not simple susceptibility or one trigger. Mercury is injected into test subjects to study autoimmune disease. The kidneys (Glumerulonephritis) are a principal site of elimination and are particularly susceptible to autoimmune disease. The following are implicated:



Halothane (Inhalation sedative)

Various Therapeutic Agents

2. Hypersensitivity

These are also complicated reactions resulting in exaggerated reactions. The following are implicated:


Metals (platinum, cobalt, chromium, nickel,



Genetically modified foods and organisms

Formaldehyde (formalin)

MTA Level IV: Phase I – Bioactivation



Most common enzymes and percentage of function:

1A2 (10% of metabolism)

Caffeine, Tylenol , theophylline metabolism.

2C (25% of metabolism)

Ibuprofen, Coumadin, 0-Limone, Valium, naproxen, etc.

2D6 (16% of metabolism)

Codeine, amphetamine, antiarrhythmics, (Metoprolol, Propranolol, etc.), antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, etc.)

34A (34% of metabolism)

Local anesthetics (lidocaine), erythromycin, cyclosporine, estradiol, testosterone, cortisone.

2E1 (4% of metabolism)

Acetaminophen (Tylenol), caffeine, alcohol, etc.


The P450 oxidase enzymes add an oxygen molecule to a toxin in order to ‘activate’ it, creating a free radical molecule.


The system is in balance regarding Phase I-generated free radicals, which are bioinactivated in Phase II. As a result no free radical damage occurs to the body.



INDUCTION: Toxins, foods or drugs may cause the system to function too fast. This can result in free radical (oxidative) damage which the body balances with vitamins (antioxidants).

Inducers are: alcohol, exhaust and paint fumes, organophosphate pesticides, steroids, and sulfur amides.

Food inducers are: flavonoids (fruits and vegetables), cruciferous vegetables (cabbage, broccoli, bok choy, brussels sprouts), garlic, rosemary, soy, oranges, a high protein diet, and charcoal-broiled meats.

INHIITION: Substances which may slow or shut down bioactivation. Doses of inhibitors need to be increased to obtain the same therapeutic effect.

Inhibitors (xenobiotics) are:

H-2 Receptor Blockers (Cimetidine) – All enzymes inhibited

Antibiotics – 1A2 fluoroquinones and 3A4 erythromycin.

Antiarrhythmics – 206

Antidepressants – 206 (and all others)

Antifungals – 3A4

Food Inhibitors are: grapefruit juice (powerful) and mineral depletion.


Inflammation, poor nutrition, or acute toxic exposure may slow or shut down Phases II and III resulting in a relatively ‘fast’ Phase I.


Since Phase I is faster, an excess of free radicals are generated, resulting in cell injury. Constant excess free radical production may result in cell death, causing symptoms to arise.

MTA Level IV: Phase II – Bioinactivation

Phase II is a series of detoxification pathways caused by a specific set of enzymes. It follows successful Phase I bioactivation. When highly reactive molecules, such as heavy metals and certain chemicals, are activated, they may directly enter Phase II by their nature.


BILE (Glucuronidation)

ENZYME: UDP glucuronyl transferase

COFACTORS (NUTRIENTS): Taurine, choline

PURPOSE: Lipid soluble molecules, the most difficult toxins for the body to process and excrete, enter this pathway. After a series of reactions, these toxins are stored in the gall bladder. When the individual eats a meal containing fats, the gall bladder releases bile into the small intestine. The bile assists the body in processing fats and allows the toxins to exit through the colon. In the colon, however, gram negative bacteria (intestinal dysbiosis) may reverse detoxification, allowing the toxins to be reabsorbed. This process is called enterohepatic circulation. It eventually causes nutritional depletion and results in toxin accumulation in the body.


  • Crigler-Nejjar syndrome
  • Gilbert’s disease
  • Bladder cancer


ENZYME: Glutathione S-transferase (GST)


PURPOSE: GSH utilizes GST to attach itself to free radicals. These metabolites (changed molecules) may need to undergo further detoxification to render them less toxic, more soluble and therefore easier to excrete.


  • Heavy metals (mercury, arsenic, lead, etc.)
  • Radiation (ionizing and nuclear)
  • Biotoxins (bacteria and mold toxins)
  • Chemicals (some medications, DDT and other pesticides, chloroform, bromides, etc.)

NOTE: GSH deficiency can be induced if there are competing toxins (several toxins utilizing the same detox pathway).


GST genetic mutations result in increased susceptibility to the following conditions:

  • Liver toxicity and cirrhosis (GST-A)
  • Type II diabetes
  • Leukemia and hemolytic anemia
  • Schizophrenia
  • Bladder cancer (GST-Ml and Tl)
  • Head, neck and lung cancers (GST-Tl)
  • Gut and lung cancers (GST-Tl)
  • Arsenic poisoning (GST-Pl)
  • Kidney problems (GST-A)



Glucuronidation (Bile)





Amino Acid Conjugation


Taurine, choline




N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)

Taurine, glycine, ornithine, arginine, acetyl co-A (acetic acid)


Aspirin (nsaids), acetaminophen, naproxen, steroids, morphine, lorazepam (valium), vitamins A, D, E, K

Acetaminophen (Tylenol), penicillin, tetracycline, heavy metals, petroleum, endotoxin, mycotoxins

Acetaminophen, aniline (coal tar derivatives), phenols, thyroid hormones, sex hormones, exotoxins

Mercury, lead, arsenic tin, thallium, morphine, l-Dopa, neurotransmitters (dopamine, epinephrine, histamine)

Nitrogen-containing compounds, anilines, caffeine, choline, serotonin PABA, histamine, mescaline, Sulfuramides

Nsaids, nicotine, bile acids, plant acids, PABA, amines, organic acids


Each detoxification pathway consists of an enzyme or set of enzymes which are all encoded by a specific gene. Each gene may be a ‘perfect’ or ‘imperfect’ (mutation) copy. Perfect copies allow each enzyme to function at full capacity (100%). Mutations function somewhere between 50% and 90%. Mutations, however, may not be an issue if the individual is never exposed to that which he or she is susceptible to (biological individuality).

Each individual has two copies of genes, one from each parent. This allows for the (phenotypic)expression of three different functional qualities: (two columns)


Two perfect copies (one from each parent)

One perfect copy and one mutation

Two mutations


Full function

Patient has perfect detox function.

Partial function

Patient has good function if not stressed; vague symptoms may exist.

Poor function (up to 12% of the population)

Patient may have vague or specific symptoms. In severe case, patient may express a disease.


  • Multiple chemical sensitivity
  • Musculo-skeletal symptoms (Fibromyalgia-like symptoms)
  • Neurological disturbances
  • Cognitive disturbances (brain fog, memory loss)
  • Digestive disturbances (diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease)


Toxins must be assessed in terms of their complete range of exposure. The following is a short list of potential types of exposure:

  • Xenobiotics
  • Infection
  • Microbial toxins
  • Radiation (including EMFs)
  • Lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, caffeine, etc.)
  • Hormonal (DHEA, cortisol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)
  • Inhalants (molds, pollen, algae, etc.)
  • Psychosocial (belief systems stress, coping skills, trauma, injury)


Scientists (Schubert Riley and Taylor, 1978) found a combination of toxins can exert a lethal effect in animals. Animals were given a small dose of mercury and lead (LD1 is the lethal dose which kills one percent of a population). This combined LD1 dosage exerted a synergistic effect resulting in 100% mortality (LD100) within five days. The study demonstrates the potential for low levels of toxins to exert a pathological effect. This phenomenon can have a profound effect. If laboratory tests show low levels of toxins (a false negative), this condition may never be diagnosed and, therefore, treated.



Section III: What Does the Research Say?

Part 3: Abstracts of Selected Studies 

Mercury and its effect on the body


REPORT: Hahn Li, Kloiber R, Vimy MJ, Takahashi Y and Lorscheider FL. “Dental “silver” tooth fillings: a source of mercury exposure revealed by whole-body image scan and tissue analysis.” FASEB Journal Vol 3 (Dec. 1989) 2641-2646.

ABSTRACT: Six sheep were given 12 radioactively-labeled amalgam (mercury) fillings to determine if fillings emit mercury vapor and if mercury is absorbed by the body. The fillings were over-carved (reduced) to minimize the amount of mercury vapor which would be produced and absorbed.

RESULTS: A whole-body scan was taken at day 29, showing radioactive mercury in most organs. The highest concentrations are shown below.

Organ  (First column)



Gum tissue




Concentration (ng mercury/gram) (second column)









REPORT: Hahn Li, Kloiber R, Leininger RW, Vimy MJ and Lorscheider FL. “Whole-body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into monkey tissues.” FASEB Journal Vol. 4, (Nov 1990) 1010-1014.

ABSTRACT: Primates have similar chewing patterns, physiology and metabolism to humans. (Sheep chew more than humans.) The whole body image revealed increased concentrations of mercury in the jawbone (20 times higher than the sheep) and gum tissue (13 times higher). Elimination of mercury was also less efficient than in sheep as less was found in the feces and the kidney. The tongue, possessing several cranial nerves which communicate with the brain, also showed significant amounts.

RESULTS: Concentrations of mercury at 28 days after filling placement.

Organ (first column)





Large intestine


Concentration (ng mercury/gram) (second column)







*Arvidson, 1987, demonstrated that mercury injected into a rat’s? Tongue was carried

by the nerve to the brain itself.



REPORT: Wenstrup D, Ehman WO, Markesbery WR. “Trace element imbalances in isolated subcellular fractions of Alzheimer’s disease brains.” Brain Research No. 533 (1990) 125-130.

ABSTRACT: Autopsies were performed on patients who died from Alzheimer’s disease. Their brains were compared to those of age-matched control patients who died from other causes.

RESULT: Alzheimer’s disease brains contained, roughly, twice as much mercury as the control brains. Zinc and selenium (minerals which help the body remove mercury) exhibited lower than normal levels.



REPORT: Eggleston D. 11Effect of dental amalgams and nickel alloys on T-lymphocytes: preliminary report. 11 Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 1984).

RESULT: The presence of amalgam fillings and nickel-alloyed oral devices (crowns as well as orthodontic brackets, wires and retainers) reduces the efficiency of the immune system.




REPORT: Hultman P, Johannsen V, Shannon J, Lindh U, Enerstran S, and Pollard KM. 11Adverse immunological effects and autoimmunity induced by dental amalgams and all in mice.” FASEB Journal Vol 8, No. 14 (Nov 1994) 1183-1190.

ABSTRACT: Autoimmune antibodies were created in mice by inserting particles of dental amalgam and a silver alloy into the mice’s bodies.

RESULT: The reactions were reported to be similar to those in scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The greater the amount of metal inserted, the greater the response.



REPORT: Cagnoli L, Zabacki T, Pasquali S, Cenci M, Sasdelli Mand Zuccheli P. “C-cell subset alterations in idiopathic glomerulonephritis.” Clinical & Experimental Immunology 50:70 (1982).

RESULT: Autoimmune disease in the kidney may be the result of mercury.



REPORTS: Mathieson PW. “Mercury: God of TH2 cells.” Clinical & Experimental Immunology 102:2 (Nov 1995) 229-230. Bagenstose LM, et al. “Mercury-induced autoimmunity in humans.” Immunology Research. 20 (1) (1999) 67-78.

RESULTS: Mercury may be responsible for multiple sclerosis by binding to the protein sheath. As a result, autoimmune T-cells are created and attack the nerve myelin sheaths.



REPORT: Boyd ND, Benediktsson E, Vimy MJ, and Lorscheider FL. Mercury from silver” dental tooth fillings impairs sheep kidney function.” American Journal of Physiology 261 (1990) Rl010-R1014.

ABSTRACT: A study was performed on sheep to determine if mercury caused kidney damage which would prevent the kidney’s ability to clear and result in long-term or lifetime accumulation. At 30 days, all six test animals showed a 54% decline in kidney function. At 60 days there was a 60% decline. Sodium excretion tripled, causing the investigators to question if this could affect hypertension and dehydration. Also, albumin excretion dropped by one third.

RESULTS: The kidney tissue did not reveal nephrotoxicity, as seen in acute or large dose exposure, but rather decreased function from the effects of chronic low-dose exposure.



REPORT: Summers AO, Wireman J, Vimy MJ, Lorsheider FL Marshall B, Levy SB, Bennett S, Billard L. “Mercury released from dental “silver” fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal flora of primates.”

American Society for Microbiology: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Vol. 37, No. 4 (April 1993) 825-834.

RESULT: Antibiotic resistance is a serious health risk. This article shows the mechanism by which oral and intestinal bacteria develop antibiotic resistance in the presence of dental mercury.


PART 1: My Personal Mercury-Toxicity Health Crisis



My Symptoms

During my late 20’s and early 30’s I began to suffer from chronic fatigue. Although I was exercising regularly, sleeping well, and eating a nutritious diet, I felt tired all the time. Other symptoms began to appear. I had joint pains that suggested Lyme disease was the culprit. I also had Candida (a yeast infection), which is usually attributed to a high sugar and carbohydrate diet. I also suffered from Sciatica, which caused nerve pain to extend down my legs. I was unable to taste food, my vision changed, and my hair seemed to turn gray overnight.

My Medical and Dental History

A quick look at my medical history showed no previous conditions or treatments that could have caused my symptoms. However, my dental history revealed that I had twelve amalgam fillings and three gold crowns. (I learned later that different metals in a conducting solution such as saliva can cause an increased release of mercury).


I tried various therapies to treat my symptoms.

  • At first, I tried a rotation diet. This involved eliminating foods which are considered allergenic, such as wheat, corn, eggs, dairy, night shades and soy. One by one, I eliminated each from my diet. When I later re-introduced each food one at a time, I found I had no reaction to them.
  • Then I tried alternative diets, such as a vegetarian diet, high protein meals, and a diet dense in whole food nutrients. I wanted to see if diet or nutrition would make a difference. None of the diets altered or improved my symptoms.
  • Next, I tried supplementing my diet with essential vitamins, minerals, and whey protein.

I still had no symptom relief.

  • Detoxification was my next step. I followed protocols for cleansing my kidneys, liver and gut. Although I had some minor improvement, my symptoms persisted.
  • Finally, I tried antibiotic therapy. This made sense because some doctors suspected that Lyme disease was a factor in my condition. Needless to say, this did not help either.


After eliminating all other treatments, mercury toxicity became a possible diagnosis. Although some doctors tried to persuade me that mercury toxicity didn’t exist, I was convinced that the next logical step would be to remove my twelve amalgam fillings.



The “Best” Dentist

I selected a dentist who was well-known in the holistic field. He had written several books on the subject, and he stressed the importance of using technology to achieve success.

My Concerns

I had several concerns about the complications of amalgam removal. These complications could have negative consequences. My major concern was deep fillings close to the dental nerve. Usually, a protective layer is placed between the nerve and the filling. In my case, however, no nerve protection was evident. Also, I was in the habit of grinding my teeth at night (another possible effect of mercury toxicity). As a result, my teeth were sensitive. I asked the dentist if I was at risk for increased tooth sensitivity, nerve loss, or even tooth loss.

His Examination

He conducted the exam very quickly and failed to assess my dental nerves. He assured me, however, that he would follow all proper amalgam removal procedures. He would also restore my teeth using bio-compatible, immune “safe,” fillings. “I have all the latest technology,” he said. “Everything will be fine.”



The Crash

  • Dental Problems. Everything was not fine. My teeth were still sensitive and I developed biting problems. I had nerve loss in two teeth which required root canals. I actually lost one tooth which had to be extracted.
  • Systemic (Medical) Problems. My chronic fatigue continued and I developed skin rashes. I also had gastrointestinal problems and was unable to eat solid food for forty days.

Analysis: What Went Wrong?

To start with, there was no comprehensive dental exam. This should have been completed in several areas.

  • A tooth exam would have determined what type of filling was needed for each tooth.
  • A dental nerve exam would have determined if the nerve was healthy enough to under go removal.
    • A bite assessment would have shown any underlying bite problem (in my case, Grinding) which treatment might
    • A gum examination would have shown any gum infection, inflammation, bone loss or recession exposing roots, all of which can cause
  • Secondly, there was no systemic assessment. Several tests can determine whether a patient is a candidate for amalgam removal.
    • A test for mercury blood levels: What were my mercury blood levels? Were they high enough to cause my symptoms? How many types of mercury do I have? Could I be suffering from other forms of heavy metal toxicity?
    • A test for detoxification: Can I eliminate heavy metals or do I retain them? If I retain them, what’s the danger of a health crisis? Can I get worse?
    • A nutritional assessment: What is the best diet for me when I undergo this procedure? Do I need to take supplements? Is there a “one size fits all” preparation or do I need an individualized plan?
    • An immune assessment: Do I currently have any infectious diseases, either bacterial or viral? Do I have any fungal infections? Do I have any chronic infections that are undiagnosed?



First, I learned that testing for blood mercury levels can reveal whether or not:

  • The liver is healthy enough to undergo the detoxification process.
  • The kidney is healthy enough to undergo the elimination process.
  • The body is able to detoxify in general.
  • The patient is at risk for new symptoms or for the worsening of existing ones.

Second, I learned that once amalgams are removed cells expel mercury into the blood stream.

This raises other questions:

  • Are the elimination pathways open?
  • Can the patient tolerate this procedure?
  • Where will the mercury go if the body cannot properly process it?

Third, I realized that technology without knowledge is ineffective. Technology can make a procedure more efficient, but scientific knowledge is necessary in case something goes wrong.

Last, I concluded that if a more thorough examination had been performed, my crisis may have been averted.



Based on my personal experience with a worst case scenario, I set out to create a more

comprehensive protocol for amalgam removal. I wanted my protocol to take into account the

many dental and systemic risks that may be encountered in the amalgam removal process.

Before I could create this protocol, however, I needed to understand better the systemic aspects of dental health. That opportunity presented itself in a manner I could not have imagined.

PART 2: Learning about Systemic Health: Treating the Causes


A few years ago, my wife was diagnosed with breast cancer. To make matters worse, it was a triple-negative cancer. Triple-negative means that it isn’t responsive to hormones. As a result, chemotherapy wasn’t indicated. My wife’s prognosis was very poor. In some cases, the survival rate is only one in twenty thousand.

Further testing showed a decrease in her immune cells, specifically the ones that fight cancer. We decided to pursue treatments that would strengthen her immune system. We found that Dr. lssels in Germany offered the best procedure for her. lmmunotherapy, which Dr. lssels practiced, is illegal in the United States, so we had to fly to Germany for alternative cancer therapy.


1. Alternative Cancer Clinics Preadmission Policies

In Germany, I learned that before alternative cancer clinics will admit patients, they

require them to have dental treatment. Otherwise, patients may not be responsive

to cancer treatment. A dentist must

  • First remove all amalgam fillings using proper protocols.
  • Second, treat all chronic or silent dental infections.

2. Successful Treatment of Cancer and All Other Systemic Diseases

In order to treat cancer successfully, Dr. lssels, Dr. Jacob, and the other alternative

cancer clinics usually make the follow recommendations:

  • First, treat all underlying causes of the disease.
  • Second, treat the disease and support the body nutritionally as it attempts to heal the condition.
  • Third, create a healthy, preventative and curative lifestyle to prevent a recurrence of the disease.
  • Finally, if the body is not responsive or the disease becomes life-threatening, seek traditional treatments.

PART 3: The Oral-Systemic Protocol for Amalgam Removal with Maximum Health Protection

A. The Oral-Systemic Protocol

As a result of my experiences and my subsequent research, I was able to design a state of the art oral-systemic protocol that offers maximum health protection. Our protocol identifies and minimizes dental risks so that a patient has little or no pain and sensitivity. It also identifies systemic risks, allowing us to minimize those risks and provide maximum protection.

B. At the First Appointment

When you become a new patient with us, you will first undergo a comprehensive exam. This exam will include a complete dental examination, a systemic assessment, and a discussion of your health goals. After completing the exam, we will prepare a health treatment plan for you. Following is an outline of our oral-systemic amalgam removal process.

C. The Oral-Systemic Amalgam Removal Process

1. Introduction: Our state of the art protocol is the product of personal experience, scientific research, and 28 years of professional success.

Our Goals:

  • To offer patient safety and comfort
  • To minimize adverse dental reactions such as tooth sensitivity, pain, nerve loss, and tooth loss.
  • To minimize adverse systemic reactions during and after amalgam removal.

2. The Comprehensive Examination

Dental History

  • Amalgam exposure
  • Exposure to other metals: crowns, pediatric crowns, braces, implants and bridges.

Dental Examination

Tooth (structural) Exam: To determine if the teeth requiring mercury removal present as strong teeth (requiring a weak filling) or weak teeth (requiring a strong filling to support the tooth.)

Dental Nerve (pulpal) Exam:

To determine if the dental nerves are healthy or show an indication of inflammation, infection or neurodegeneration. We obtain this information by performing clinical, provocative and radiographic assessments.

Periodontal (gum tissue) Exam: To determine whether the gum tissue is healthy, infected, inflamed or receded. Is there bone loss on specific teeth? Does bone loss affect the prognosis of two key teeth? Is there food impaction, which can cause more periodontal problems or decay on teeth we plan to restore? A periodontal examination will evaluate gum line levels, bone loss, tooth mobility (looseness), and other parameters which may affect the outcome.

Functional Examination:

To assess the occlusion (the bite), the muscles of the jaw and the jaw joint. Muscle spasm in the jaw muscles can exert stress on the teeth, causing sensitivity, pain and fractures. It can also exert stress on the gums and on the bone around the teeth, contributing to gum recession and bone loss. Additional pressure exerted on the bone tissue itself results in ischemia, or reduced blood flow to the teeth. This is the most significant factor in adverse dental consequences, and can be evidenced on a radiograph.

Dental Radiographs (x-rays):

It is necessary to obtain a full-mouth series in order to make proper teeth, nerve, periodontal and bite assessments. We take analog x-rays, which are state of the art and expose patients to low levels of radiation, compared to

digital x-rays, which are a computer interpretation and not a true image.

Acupuncture Meridian to Tooth Association Analysis: The acupuncture meridians in traditional Chinese medicine show a correspondence between teeth and the rest of the body. If a significant association is noted, we will discuss these correlations.

The Patient’s Health Status:

  • To determine if the patient is under any systemic risk from the immune, detoxification or elimination systems.
  • To determine if any consultations with physician or other practitioners need to be performed, as well as additional tests.

3. The Treatment Plan

Dental Restoration Type: Once amalgams are removed, we will select a restoration type and material for each tooth being restored, based on a diagnosis. Restorations are classified as Type I through IV and are dependent on the following diagnostic criteria:

  • Structural Assessment:

A strong tooth can have a weak filling material but a weak tooth requires a restoration type which will strengthen it.

  • Functional Assessment:

Muscle spasm causes greater stress to the tooth. Mercury and dental metal provide strength in the face of such force. Once mercury is removed and a weaker material, such as a ceramic, replaces it, careful consideration must be taken so that the tooth and material can survive the stress. The mouth, under extreme conditions, can exert forces up to 1000 pounds per square inch!

  • Neurological Assessment:

The condition and location of the dental nerve is important. The more tooth loss there is and the deeper the filling, the greater the risk to the nerve for sensitivity, pain, and nerve loss (death of the nerve).

  • Periodontal Assessment:

The restoration must also protect the surrounding gums to prevent recession and food impaction. Food impaction, as a result of open tooth contacts, can result in tooth decay, bone loss, and the need for extensive restoration and potential crown lengthening surgery.

The Restoration Classification System:

  • Type I: Direct Restorations

Diagnosis: Good dental health, according to all assessments.

Indications: A strong tooth which can be restored in one visit with a direct filling material such as composite.

  • Type II: Inlay Restorations

Diagnosis: Food impaction with existing or potential pathology.

Indications: A structurally sound tooth with open contacts is a good candidate for an inlay.

  • Type III: Onlay Restorations

Diagnosis: The loss of a tooth’s chewing surface, called a “cusp.”

Indications: A structurally sound tooth with a decayed or fractured cusp is a good candidate for an onlay.

  • Type IV: Crown Restoration

Diagnosis: The loss of one or more cusps.

Indications: A structurally weak tooth with the loss of at least one cusp requires a crown.

Other Indications:

  • Cracked or fractured tooth
  • Degenerative or susceptible nerve
  • Excessive grinding which would fracture a Type I, II, or Ill restoration.

Biocompatibility: Material Selection


Before being considered for use, dental materials undergo testing for various components, such as strength, wear, resistance, and esthetics. However, no significant testing for biological safety is performed. ANSI Specification 41 is the standard for biological testing of dental materials. It does not specify or require “real world” testing of corrosion, off-loading and ionization, all of which can occur once these materials are placed in the mouth. In fact, products which underperform in these tests can be placed on the market as long as a warning is added on the product insert sheet. Also, many products released into the market do not require testing at all, since they have received “grandfather” status.

  • Metal-free Restorations:

Many dentists claim that they use metal free restoration products. In truth, there are few, if any, metal free dental restoratives. The nature of chemistry requires that any existing anion must be balanced with a mineral or metal cation. Consequently, nearly all “metal free” restorations, such as ceramics, porcelains, composites, and glass ionomers, contain metal cations. Therefore, they are not truly metal free. All these restorations, likewise, produce galvanic currents in the mouth, which must be understood and balanced by any dentist.

Reference: go to

  • Common Materials used in Dental Restoration

Type I Direct Filling:

  1. Composites. These are composed of two-thirds silica glass and one-third resin. The resin compound contains Bis-pheny A (BPA) or a similar compound. Proper polymerization (setting) is considered safe but health concerns have been raised.
  2. Conpomers. These are composites with a short life span and are rarely used in the United States.

Types II, III, and IV Materials

  1. Ceramic materials. There are three “families,” including alumina, zirconia and lithium disilicate. Many dentists believe ceramics are biocompatible by nature; however, immune sensitivities may arise not only in the parent molecules, but also in the manufactured and patented versions. To obtain a patent, a manufacturer must alter the parent molecule. In most cases, ceramics are advertised as being improved for strength and esthetics. Usually, this involves the addition of metal ions to the matrix of the ceramic.
  2. Processed composites. Various composites are lab processed to remove any unreacted chemicals which may leach into the body. As with ceramics, however, various metallics may be added to enhance the characteristics of the composite.
  3. Gold. A small percentage of patients react to composites and ceramics. In that case, gold is the only option for restoring their teeth. Also, ceramic restorations in severe grinders would disintegrate, even with the use of a mouth guard.

Dental metals are classified by the following categorization. 

  • “Biological” Gold: Alloys with more than 90% gold and some
  • “High Noble”: Many of these alloys contain palladium and other metals which may be biologically reactive.
  • “Noble Metal”
  • “Base Metals”

NOTE: Only biological gold will be consistently biocompatible in a select population. If one must use a gold alloy, there are homeopathic techniques which work as an antidote for any retention in the body. Also, some alloys may be designated by a palladium free (PF) label to indicate biocompatibility.

*One patient per year may require gold (rare).

4. The Treatment Phases

Dental Pre-Preparation

Introduction: The purpose of this phase is to treat the dental nerves and muscle spasm to reduce the risk of pain, sensitivity or nerve loss.

  • If muscle spasm is present and poses a risk to dental nerve health, as in the case where nerve degeneration is present, a bite adjustment may be necessary. If the spasm is severe (neuromuscular dysfunction), two mouth guards may be necessary.
  • If nerve degeneration is present, dental acupuncture and neural therapy techniques exist to stimulate nerve health.

Systemic Pre-Preparation

Introduction: The purpose of this phase is to improve one’s ability to function metabolically and to tolerate the amalgam removal process.

  • The Nutritional Assessment determines one’s metabolic status, that is, one’s ability to convert food into energy and nutrients and to deliver those essential nutrients to target tissues, such as the oral cavity. There are twelve metabolic diets. Adherence to the wrong one can result in physical degeneration and disease. We also assess for food allergies so that these foods can be eliminated during the therapeutic phase.
  • The Systemic Assessment determines one’s ability to process toxins by way of the Immune-Detoxification-Elimination systems. Specific tests measure mercury blood level with liver and kidney function (Quicksilver Scientific). We can perform these tests before and after removal, to show a decrease in blood levels and increase in organ function. Other tests show metal allergies (MELISA test) as well as genetic defects for glutathione (Phase II) and cellular pumps (Phase III) designed to remove mercury and other heavy metals.

Therapeutic Schedule

  • Amalgam removal start time: The quadrant of your mouth to be treated and the amount of filling to be removed will be determined either during or after the treatment plan process.
  • Waiting periods between treatments: Generally, a period of three to four weeks is satisfactory to allow Waiting periods may vary for patients with more severe conditions.

Day of Treatment Process

  • Do’s:
    • Do have only a liquid meal, consisting either of fruit smoothies or vegetable juices with protein.
    • Do take supplements as prescribed.
    • Do take prescribed medications as needed.
  • Don’ts:
    • Do not take Vitamin C (for all procedures) or omega 3 oils (for all surgical procedures). NOTE: These can be taken after the procedure.
    • Do not take NSAID pain killers (aspirin, ibuprofen) before surgery.
    • Do not work out on the day of treatment

5. The Amalgam Removal Patient Protection Process

Throughout the amalgam removal process, we protect our patients (and ourselves) using several techniques:

  • Cooling: Drilling out amalgam fillings generates heat, increasing the release of mercury vapor. We keep your filling cool to reduce the amount of vapor released.
  • Chunking: Chunking involves drilling only enough of the filling to cut it into chunks, which are then removed by simple suction. This technique helps to reduce the amount of vapor produced.
  • Using a high-volume evacuator: This powerful and important suction tool surrounds the filling during removal. It captures mercury vapor and amalgam particles, thereby minimizing the patient’s exposure to them.
  • Oxygen to reduce vapor exposure. We provide you with a protective oxygen mask during amalgam removal. This is especially important if you are pregnant or nursing or have existing health issues related to mercury, allergies, or the immune system.
  • Using a rubber dam. A rubber dam isolates the tooth being worked on. It reduces the amount of mercury vapor inhaled and makes evacuation of the filling material easier. It also prevents amalgam particles from being swallowed. With some teeth, however, such as second and third molars (wisdom teeth), it may not be possible to place a rubber dam.
  • Cleaning the patient’s mouth. Once the fillings have been removed, we thoroughly rinse and vacuum the patient’s entire mouth. We then ask the patient to gargle and spit out the residue into a sink.
  • Keeping room air as pure as possible. We filter our office air to keep it pure and free from any mercury vapor released as a result of amalgam removal.

6. Follow-up Procedures

Homeopathic injections

Acupuncture meridian balance.

Neural therapy

Four-Day Follow-up: Some patients may be advised to double their nutritional supplements for a few days.

7. Post-systemic Therapy

There are various forms of detoxification therapy to assist the body with removal of toxins. We can advise you as to the various techniques and doctors who are skilled in chelation therapy, a medical procedure that uses chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body.

We advise all patients to continue in our practice for periodic re-evaluations of the teeth nerves, gum tissue, and bite and to ensure our treatment plan will provide long-term dental health.


  • No pain and all gain.
  • I noticed an improvement
  • Painless and effortless
  • Kind, caring and considerate
  • If a controversy exists over amalgam fillings, err on the side of safety and health
  • I tried all other mercury protocols and Dr. Memoli’s was the only one which made me feel better.